Management of Phragmites doesn’t end after the initial treatment. Management strategies should be maintained over multiple years to substantially reduce Phragmites populations. However, repeated management treatments may also result in a temporary deterioration of habitats. Chemical control, in particular, while generally considered the most efficient form of control, will also lead to a degradation of resident species when applied at a broad scale. As a result, the increased resource availability (e.g. sun, space, nutrient) and decreased competitive pressure can facilitate the reintroduction of Phragmites or other undesirable invasive species. Phragmites seeds will remain viable in the seed bank for a few years, and seedlings are likely to appear in years following the treatments. An effective management plan should allocate sufficient resources to encompass the costs associated with restoration efforts and long-term monitoring of the targeted site. Another aspect of management is continuing education. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses a series of learning modules titled: Volunteers and Invasive Plants to help volunteers better understand and manage invasive species.
- Galatowitsch, S. M., D. L. Larson, and J. L. Larson. 2016. Factors affecting post-control reinvasion by seed of an invasive species, Phragmites australis, in the central Platte River, Nebraska, Biol Invasions. doi 10.1007/s10530-015-1048-3. Full Paper
- Peter, C. R. and D. M. Burdick. 2010. Can plant competition and diversity reduce the growth and survival of exotic Phragmites autralis invading a tidal marsh? Estuaries and Coasts, 33(5): 1225-1236. Abstract
- Carlson, M. L., K. P. Kowalski and D. A. Wilcox. 2009. Promoting species establishment in a Phragmites-dominated Great Lakes coastal wetland. Natural Areas Journal, 29(3): 263-280. Abstract
- Byun, C., S. de Blois and J. Brisson. 2013. Plant functional group identify and diversity determine biotic resistance to invasion by an exotic grass. Journal of Ecology, 101(1): 128-139. Abstract